RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FINAL YEAR PROJECT PROPOSAL NAMEadmin / April 24, 2019
FINAL YEAR PROJECT PROPOSAL
NAME : MUGASHINI THANA BALAN
MATRIX NUMBER : 56744
BATCH: YEAR 2 / SEM 2
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION TO LEARN AND JOB PERFORMANCE: SUPERVISORYSUPPORT AS A MEDIATOR
This research was conducted to measure the mediating effect of supervisory support in the relationship between motivation to learn and job performance. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are being conducted in this study. These two theories was used to examine the relationship motivation to learn and supervisory support towards the education sector employees which are school teachers. There are two dimensions that will be tested; intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, which are the independent variables while job performance of the employees in the education sector as the dependent variables. The research also concentrate on how to increase the level of job performance among the employees which the supervisory support as a mediator. The questionnaire are distributed to the respondents which consists of 200 education sector employees which are school teachers that are selected randomly in the Johor state. The employees consists of different range of age, race, gender and level of education.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Motivation and job performance have always been a common research among all the researches. It also has been extensively researched. Throughout the halfway in this twentieth century, there are few important motivation theories which are Maslow hierarchy of needs (1943), Herzberg’s two-factor theory (1959) and Expectancy Theory (1964). Those researches will commonly focus on the motivation theory as general while employees motivation will be specifically researched. In the past few years, there were various of the definition was given for motivation, e.g. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs defined motivation is a theory that consists of five interdependent levels of basic human needs that must be satisfied in a strict order which starts from the bottom level.
In this rapid society where everyone is racing with the time, employees in education sector face difficulties to cop up with the timing and also with loads of work. These employees need some certain ways to boost up their motivation in order to complete their work on time and also by giving the best quality of work. But, in order to boost them up, what are those ways to solve this problem? What can be done by the supervisor in order for the employees to produce the best quality and on time work? The only solution is through intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. These motivations play a critical role in producing better performance at work.
Intrinsic motivation can be defined as a stimulation that will allow an individual to adapt or changes his or her behavior for their own satisfaction and fulfillment. Intrinsic motivation is usually will be self-applied and behavior automatically changes according to the individual itself and the surrounding situation. Meanwhile, extrinsic motivation can be defined as the driven to an action that is influenced from outsider instead of their own feelings.
However, in this research, supervisory support is very important towards a better job performance. Supervisory support helps to encourage the employees who are the trainees through effective communication and also helps to improve the motivation among them. Without the support of supervisory, the employees might be traveling beyond their own right track to complete their work and produce better quality work.
1.1 Research Background
In this research, we are going to study the motivation concepts and its importance towards the job performance ,especially in education sector. The practitioners, that is the supervisor, and the person that involves in this education sector must know the significance of the motivation in order to increase the job performance. To make sure we have a better understanding about this research, we are going to explore more of the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and its impact in particular.
At the early of the 1970s, intrinsic motivation have been studied. This motivation is actually a self-desire to look up for new things and new challenges to be satisfied. This is because it is used to analyze the capabilities, gain knowledge and also to observe. Within the experimental studies of animal behavior, intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged. In that studies, due to curiosity-driven behaviors it was proven that the organisms would be more boost up and excited with the absence of reward.
The influences outside of the individual itself is the actually reason where the extrinsic motivation happened. The main question that will be asked in extrinsic motivation is where do people get their motivation in order to keep pushing with better persistence. Common extrinsic motivation can be named as rewards such as money or even grades. Competition among staffs or even outsider also can be one of the extrinsic motivators because it gives a strong driven for an individual to perform well and better to win. This is because human being have always wanted to be best in everything and also receive the best and better reward compare to others. In this way, when there are competitions among them, they will be more trigger to do their work in order to receive a better reward.
1.2 Problem Statement
The success or failure of an organization is determined based on the employee quality in order to achieve their organizational goals and long-term visions. An organization can be called successful if the employees manage to finish their work on time, produce best quality results and also achieve the initial organization objectives.
Job performance has become a huge impact on the organization itself. This is because a success of an organization is based on the employee’s job performance. If the employee’s job performance decreases it will eventually give a huge impact on the development of the organization. Eventually, it can be said that what an employee think and do will literally lead to the productivity and the efficiency of the organization.
Labor turnover and absenteeism have been the common issues that related to employees’ dissatisfaction however, there are some other factors to related to it. This is why to improve job performance, motivation plays an important role to boost up the employee. An job performance will be failed if there are no motivation concepts in their organization. The motivation provided can be internally or externally. There are some evident saying that the decrease in job performance of an employee is because of lack of the motivation to learn among themselves and also lack of support from the organization management.
1.3 Research Objective
1.3.1 General Objectives
This study aims to test the mediating effect supervisory support in the relationship between motivation to learn and job performance.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
The objectives of this proposed study are to:
To examine the relationship between intrinsic motivation and job performance.
To examine the relationship between extrinsic motivation and job performance
To examine the effect of supervisory support as a mediator in the relationship between intrinsic motivation and job performance.
To examine the effect of supervisory support as a mediator in the relationship between extrinsic motivation and job performance.
1.4 Research Questions
This study has generated few questions to be answered regarding the motivation to learn and job performance. The research study will be guided by the following research question for the investigations as follows:
How to increase the employee’s job performance by providing motivation to learn ?
What is the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and job performance?
3. How the supervisory support affect the employee’s job performance?
1.5 Significant of Study
This study contributes to further research, organizational perspective and individual perspective (employee). The certainty and reliability of the result of this study can be a guideline for future research on job performance.
In organizational perspective, this study helps to promote better understanding and knowledge of the relationship between motivation to learn and job performance. Besides that, this research helps to determine how the supervisory support affect the job performance of the education sector employees. It also helps the organization to figure out the best way to improve the productivity and the efficiency of the organization.
Furthermore, this research study helps the organization by providing useful information to set suitable strategy in making sure that how the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the supervisory support gives maximum level of satisfaction and fulfillment.
1.6 Limitation of Study
This study was conducted on the motivation to learn and job performance which targeted the education sector employees. Around 200 employees are targeted and selected randomly from the Johor state. And the randomly selected students are from the sector around Kluang city. Furthermore, the research project is likely requires more money and time. And due to the money and time constraint, so the scope of the study has been reducing.
In this chapter, it is the introduction regarding the motivation to learn and supervisory support that was related to the job performance. This chapter introduces some variables of motivation to learn that would be studied (intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation) and the importance of these variables in order to increase the job performance ,especially education sector. Thus, to understand better the concept of the motivation to learn and its importance towards the employee job performance a review of the literature and a testing of the framework should be conducted, in which will be revealed in the following chapters of this research.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
A literature review is ordinal process that involves the determination of published and unpublished work from secondary data sources on the topic interest (Sekaran ; Bougie, 2009, p.38). Each of the contents of the literature is focused on the specific nature of the relevant literature that relates to this study.
This chapter contains the reviews of secondary data that researchers have collected from journals, articles and book. The reviews are summarized after some referral from the past studies and are related to the motivation models. The formulation of hypothesis is based on the relationship between independent variables (intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation) and dependent variables (job performance).
2.1 Concept of Motivation to Learn
In general, the word motivation is very powerful yet can sometimes be tricky too. At times, it would be really easy to get motivated and could find ourselves wrapped up all the excitement. However, it can also be the most difficult thing to achieve on how to motivate yourself.
However what is motivation to learn? How to define it? The phrase motivation to learn can be divided into two components which is motivation and learning. The word motivation only can be known as a persistence, direction or even an amount of effort that may be expanded into an individual so that he or she could achieve their particular objectives. (Blanchard ; Thacker, 2007). Besides that, leaning can be determined using two component which are human cognitive and behavioral perspective. Cognitive theories have explained learning as relatively permanent changes in cognitive occurring as a result of experiences. Behavior theories also have defined that leaning as relatively a permanent changes in behavior in response to a stimulus or set of stimuli. (Noe,1986: 736-170). All the above, will directly or indirectly affect the individual who has a clear goal, high self-efficacy and even who puts a high value on outcomes.
Motivation to learn also related to goal orientated. The way an employee try to bring themselves to learn new task or skills within a certain situation is a very strong indicator of their performance and engagement. An employee who wants to master in new field, department or even new skills will eventually use more effective learning strategies compared to another employee who is ego orientated. For example, an employee will invest his effort and time to master the HR department because he or she really interested in the HR field and the employee will even ask how to do this ? how to do that? why should do that?. This will make them explore even better and have a critical thinking.
Besides that, motivation to learn can strive for goals and the willpower as well. An employee needs encouragement and feedback in order for them to develop their willpower. The purpose and the possible solution plans should be the main thing before an employee try to learn the new task or skills. This is because knowledge is the main item needed to make any effective decisions which are persist in goal striving stage. In this way, employees can think and judge which strategies will be best for them to take and which one will be more useful in order to achieve the self-goals and also the organization goals.
2.1.1 Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation is a motivation that involves the engaging in a person behavior because it is personally rewarding, they will also perform the task for their own satisfaction rather than the external reward. This theory also can be defined as the internal motivation for the employees or trainees. Examples of action for this motivation include: solving a word puzzle because it is more fun and challenging and even exciting, participating in a sport because you find the activity more enjoyable. In this way, we can say that a person’s behavior can be motivated by their own internal desire to participate in any activity for its own sake.
Besides that, through this intrinsic motivation, people will try to obtain their motivation in itself for work very well. This is because intrinsic motivation is more on self-satisfaction. There are five aspects of intrinsic motivation which are more into challenging rather than any easy work, a way to satisfy their own interest and curiosity rather than pleasing others, always independent mastery attempts than dependent on others, independent judgment and always prefer internal criteria for success and failure rather than external criteria. Intrinsic motivation is also a highly desired form of incentive that shows up from a person’s internal desire for their self-satisfaction or pleasure in performing their particular task and even can be directly or indirectly affect the employee job performance. This is because for an employee to do their work or to fulfill their satisfaction, they need some spirit and satisfaction in order to improve their job performance.
2.1.2 Extrinsic motivation
According to Kendra Cherry (2018), extrinsic motivation occurs when a person only will perform a task in a motive of receiving the rewards or avoid punishment. Extrinsic motivation is also more to external reward to an employee. This is called in such way because it can boost up the employee and eventually gives them the spirit for them to be motivated. This motivation typically has been characterized as a pale and impoverished form of motivation. The classical case of extrinsic motivation is that one feels externally propel with the action and it can also be called as self-endorsed. Whenever a person is motivated by the external factors such as money, praise, competition and even threat or punishment, whether to avoid the negative outcomes or to achieve positive results, it is wholly considered as extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is been carry out in order to increase the productivity of an organization or even get to create a better learning environment for all the employees. This motivation also helps to increase individual benefits. However, there is one disadvantage which is everyone has been spending their whole life by chasing rewards and pride at work and then they will eventually regret what they have missed in their life.
External rewards which are the extrinsic motivation can also be such a source of feedback where they know until to what extent they have achieved their goals and how their performance have affected and achieved to a deserving standard. In many cases, if they are able to satisfy their needs and satisfaction, the employee are extrinsically motivation especially through monetary compensation. In such way, we can say that this motivation directly helps to increase the job performance of an employee because each of the people needs the reward for the job that they have done well and done it in a certain time period.
2.1.3 Theory Related to Motivation
The theory that is related to motivation is the Herzberg motivation theory. This theory is been developed by Fredrick Herzberg (1959) who was an American psychologist where he describes the human motivation. The word motivation acts as a reference that guides the trainee thinking, feeling and action will become the subject. This Herzberg’s findings have shown that there are some characteristics of job that can lead to a job satisfaction and even otherwise too. So for example, factors for satisfaction such as achievement, recognition, responsibility can eventually lead to satisfaction which can lastly relate to job performance.
In this Herzberg motivation theory, there are two factors involved which are the motivator factors and hygiene factors. Motivator factors were needed in order to motivate the employee to perform well and give their very best in any work they do, however, the hygiene factors more needed to make sure that the employees are not dissatisfied where it may affect the job performance of an organization. Motivators satisfaction will be satisfied if their self achievement is successfully achieved. However, the lack of motivators can literally lead basis of complaint and concern in anyways if hygiene factors is been concentrated more than they suppose to be.
2.2 Concept of Supervisory Support
Supervisory support can be defined to where the leaders in an organization value and appreciate their employees’ work, contributions and even they also care about their well being. In a simple word, we can say that the leader with a higher supervisory support is the one who will care, hear, and even guide and value their employees’ needs and well being. Even it is very easy to hear and see but it eventually becomes the hardest part to be done when an employee is being promoted to a supervisor and he or she have to start doing all those things in order to increase the employee’s job performance in the organization.
Supervisory support will be more effective if the supervisor is very supportive and cared and valued their employees. This kind of supervisor will make a lot of differences in the employees’ everyday work environment. For example, when an employee entered work and the supervisor wished for their day to be good and support them, the whole day the employee mood will be good even with a lot of workloads. Supervisor plays an important role the employees’ life. Strong supervisor support can help to improve and change the quality of employment to best and better ones. This support also associated with job satisfaction where it leads to job performance, perceptions of a better fit the employee and organization and lastly even helps to reduce the employee turnover which is very common in many cases these days.
2.2.1 Theory Related in the Supervisory Support
The theory that related to supervisory support is the organization support theory. The organization objectives, goals, and even intentions are related to the action of the supervisor. According to Linda Rhoades and Robert Eisenberger (2002), organization support theory also supposes that to determine the increase in work effort is affect from the organization’s concentration on reward, employee develop worldwide beliefs concerning the maximization to which their organization cares about other’s contributions and also well being (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, ; Sowa, 1986; Shore ; Shore, 1995).
Supervisor roles are very important as the supervisor can help to increase the job performance of an employee with the help of motivation too. Supervisors need to have knowledge and skills in the particular areas such as planning, budgeting, organizing and even developing and evaluating human resources programs. This is because the supervisor is the first person that an employee will find in order to gain information for that particular area that they work on. Besides that, the supervisor also need to provide encouragement and support to their employee in order for them to build motivation among themselves and it can eventually related to satisfaction and lastly job performance.
For an organization to run smoothly and succeed fully, the supervisor needs to use their skills and knowledge to empower their employees. Furthermore, the supervisor will evaluate their employees by giving feedback on what they are doing right, how to improve it to give better results and also can give some suggestions on how to settle the work in a short period of time but with best results as well. Every word by the supervisor is actually a small motivation that has been given to the employees. Supervisor also is there to give negative and positive reinforcement when needs and they even use motivation theories to empower their employees.
2.3 Concept of Job Performance
According to Business Dictionary, the definition of job performance is the activity that related to work and also how it is been done. This job performance has been the most important dependent variables and has been studies for a long decade. Performance is a multidimensional concept.
According to Campbell, performance is known as a behavior. It is something that ie been done by employees. Performance and outcomes have some differences between them. Outcomes are more about the individual performance results and it also results from some other influences. Performance does not have to directly observable actions of an employee. It consists of mental production such as decisions or even answers. However, performance needed to be under an individual’s control such as the supervisor.
Job performance is divided into the task and contextual performance. Task performance was defined as effectiveness with which job incumbents perform activities that contribute to the organization’s technical core (Borman and Motowidlo, 1997). however, contextual performance was defined as performances that are not formally required as part of the job but that helps to shape the social and psychological context of the organization (Borman and Motowidlo, 1993).
2.3.1 Theory Related to Job Performance
The theory that related to job performance is the Maslow’s hierarchy need theory. This Maslow theory is one of the best-known theories of motivation. Maslow first introduced the hierarchy of needs in 1943. Maslow believed that people have a certain desire to be self-actualized, that is to be all that they can. In order to achieve the ultimate goals, a person needs to have a certain number of basic needs such as safety, love, food, and even self-esteem.
Maslow’s hierarchy is often looked as a pyramid that has the certain level to achieve. In order to achieve the upper level, a person should achieve the bottom level first in order to go to the next level. The lowest level of this Maslow hierarchy is made up of basic needs while the complex needs remain in higher top level. This theory consists of five levels. First is the physiological needs. These needs are probably fairly apparent where these are the things which are vital to our survival. This needs consist of food, water, sleep, clothes and even homeostasis.
Next are the security and safety needs. In this level, it starts to be a bit more complex. Safety and security become the primary needs in this level. In this stage, people want to have control and order of their own lives. Examples of needs at this level are the financial security, health and wellness and even safety against injury and accidents. This security and safety needs will eventually motivate some actions such as finding a job, contributing some money to the savings account or even moving into a safer neighborhood.
Besides that, is the level of social needs. Social needs at this level such as belonging, acceptance and even love. This level is more about the emotional relationship is driven by human behavior. Some things needed to be satisfied at this level such as family, friendships, social group, community group and even romantic attachments. This level needed to be achieved in order to avoid loneliness, depression and even anxiety. People need to be loved and cared for their family and friends and even surroundings too.
Furthermore, the fourth level in this Maslow hierarchy is the esteem needs which is also known as respect and appreciation level. After the below three levels are been achieved, this fourth level will begin to play a more prominent role in motivating behavior of a person. Respect and appreciation can be seen when their work and accomplishment is been praised and talked proudly about. In addition, self-esteem and personal worth are very important at this stage. For example, esteem needs will be fulfilled when we participate in professional activities, become an athletic or team participation and even academic accomplishments. Lack of self-esteem and respect will cause to develop feelings of inferiority.
The last level will be the self-actualization needs. This will be the very peak level in this Maslow of hierarchy. This level if more like ; What a man can be, he must be,; where it refers to the need of people to achieve their full potential as human beings. According to Kendra, in Maslow theory, self-actualization definition is more like ;it may be loosely described as the full use of talents, capabilities and even potentialities. Such people seem to be fulfilling themselves with the things that they are best at and capable of doing so;. Self actualizing people is very much as self aware where they concern about their personal growth, less concern about others’ opinion and comments and they even take this opportunities to fulfill their potential to maximum level.
2.4 Conceptual Framework
Independent Variable Mediating Dependent variable
Motivation to learn
23317204445 Supervisory Support
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the Research
2.5 Hypotheses of Study
This study is to attempt to examine the mediating role that supervisory support in the relationship between motivation to learn and job performance. Thus the following are hypothesized.
H1: There is a significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and job performance
H2: There is a significant relationship between extrinsic motivation and job performance
H3: Supervisory support mediates the relationship between intrinsic motivation and job performance
H4: Supervisory support mediates the relationship between extrinsic motivation and job performance
Literature reviews of the theoretical models and variety of approaches to job performance provide conceptual background to strengthen the argument of this research. The formulation of the hypotheses will able the researcher to proceed with the test on the topic. Research methods will be discussed in the next chapter.
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
In order to get accurate results, research project requires suitable techniques and methods. To complete this research, methodologies are developed to refine the study that enables researchers to generate information needed. It is essential for a research paper to have a well-designed research methodology as the degree of accuracy and usefulness of a research is directly affected by the methodology.
Research methodology is an important part of the research study that explains how the research was conducted. This chapter includes research design, sampling and population, research instrument, data collection technique, and data analysis technique.
3.1 Research Design
A research design is a step to gather and analyze the imperative data and assist to find the location of the study, sample size, population and so on (Sekaran & Bougie, 2009, p.102). in conducting this research, the researcher uses quantitative research. Quantitative data are collected through measuring things and are analyzed through numerical comparisons and statistical inferences. The data are then presented through statistical analyses. Descriptive studies are conducted with a considerable understanding of the situation being studied. A good research design ensures that the information collected is relevant and useful to conduct research project more effectively and efficiently. This research study focuses on exploring the importance of motivation to learn with the supervisory support towards job performance of the education sector employees.
3.2 Sampling and Population
3.2.1 Target Population
The main objective of this study is to explore the relationship between motivation to learn with supervisory support towards job performance. The industry that mainly reviewed in this research is education sector. So, the target population for this research will be among the education sector employees who are school teachers. To choose the employees from the education sector, the researcher wishes to use simple random sampling. Simple random sampling is the probability sampling which is randomly selected sample from a large sample of a population.
3.2.2 Sampling Frame and Sampling Location
In statistics, a sample is defined as the subset of a population that is used to represent the entire group as a whole. A sampling frame is the source material or device from which a sample is drawn. In this research, the sampling frame will be the education sector employees. While the sampling location for the survey to be conducted is around Kluang city. The selected students would be the one study in the education sector around Kluang, such as SJK(T) Jalan Haji Manan, Sekolah Tinggi Kluang, Sekolah Tun Hussein Onn, and Sekolah Menengah Kluang Barat.
3.2.3 Sampling Element
The respondent that will be used as part of this research is the education sector’s employees. A proper selection of the respondent is essential to get a relevant and valid research result to achieve the objective of the research. The candidate that becomes the respondent must be an employee from any education sector that located around Kluang city, Johor. The reason to choose these sampling elements is that they are the main subject in this research since motivation to learn is very important among the education sector employees because they can be directly or indirectly related to stress and loads of work.
3.2.4 Sampling Technique
There is two technique of sampling; probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Probability sampling occurs when the members of the population have an equal chance to be a part of the sample, while non-probability sampling is the opposite of the probability sampling where the members of the population do not get equal chances to be the samples.
In this research, the researcher used non-probability sampling. The questionnaire form will be distributed to the selected respondents that met the requirements of the sampling elements. A total of 200 questionnaire form will be distributed directly to the respondent and they are required to answer it.
3.2.5 Sampling Size
The sample size is the number of observations to include in a statistical sample, which is used to make an inference about a population from a sample. As for this research, to represent the target population, a sample size of 200 respondents are chosen randomly among the education sector employees.
3.3 Data Collection Method
In this research study, two type of data collection method had been used; primary data and secondary data. Any data collected or observed from for the first time is known as primary data, for example, questionnaire. Meanwhile, data that is collected in the past or other parties is called secondary data, like journals, articles, and others.
In this research primary data is used, that will be collected by distributing the questionnaire to the respondents. The questions designed to elicit specific responses for quantitative analysis, in order to gather information on the motivation to learn and supervisory support on job performance.. And secondary data, such as the journals, articles, books and other references are used to gather the information and data needed from the past study
3.4 Research Instrument
The instrument that will be used in this research to obtain the data is the questionnaire. The questionnaire is a set of printed or written documents that contain either open-ended question or closed-ended questions. The questionnaire is distributed to the respondents to collect the data that will be used to conduct further study. The questionnaire contains two sections. Section A is the demographic details of the respondent; age, gender, ethnics, education and length of services which will be measured using a nominal scale. For the Section B, the question is to measure the job performance towards the motivation to learn provided with the supervisory support. The Likert measurement scale is being used to get the response from the samples (1=strongly disagree and 5=strong agree). The sample questionnaire was taken from two different theses. First is title ; Relationship between motivation to learn and job performance where the supervisory support act as mediator, wrote by Nazhatul binti Bakri in 2011. Next is the thesis title is ;Relationship between supervisory support and job performance where the motivation to learn act as mediator, wrote by Sheela Chitra A/P Chandra Segaran in 2007.
3.5 Pilot Study
According to Martyn Shuttleworth, pilot study is known as a standard scientific tool for soft research. This study is carried out in order to discuss the survey questionnaire with the several participants. To verify the content and format of the questionnaire for the actual study, information will be gathered that is obtained from pilot study. Pilot study also will be used to make sure the survey questionnaire is understood by the respondents.
3.6 Data Analysis Method
To analyze the data collected in this study statistical analysis is used. The data collected via questionnaire form will be analyzed statistically by using Software Package for Social Science (SPSS). Besides that, SPSS also enables the presentation of data through a better graphical presentation, such as bar chart, pie chart, histogram, and others. As for this study, the researcher is studying the relationship between motivation to learn and supervisory support towards job performance.
3.7 Reliability and Validity
Reliability is known as findings are being repeated while validity refers to the credibility of the research. Reliability and validity are very important when a research instrument is being carried out. In order to test the validity of all the variables, factor analysis will be used. The variables will be valid if the factor analysis value is 0.4 or greater.
In this chapter, the researcher had explained on the data collection method and also data analysis method. As for the data collection, the researcher is using the questionnaire form and the data collected will be analyzed by using SSPS software. The other aspects of the methodology like sampling size, target population, sampling techniques, sampling elements and sampling frame and location had been discussed in earlier part. For the next chapter, the data that have been analyzed will be interpreted and explained to the reader to help them to understand the study more clearly.
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